Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri-Marie-Raymonde de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa was a French artist who, in the 1890s, observed and managed to capture with great psychological insight the personalities and facets of Parisian nightlife and the French entertainment business. He was born in Albi, France, on November 24, 1864, and died in Malromé on September 9, 1901. His compositions were particularly rhythmic due to his employ of expressive lines that wafted and frequently turned pure arabesque (e.g., In the Circus Fernando: The Ringmaster, 1888). His posters are some of his most powerful pieces because of their great simplification in form and movement and the inclusion of enormous color sections.
The family of Toulouse-Lautrec was well-off and extended its lineage back to Charlemagne without any interruptions. He was fostered by his family's conventional aristocratic love of art and sport. The infant spent most of his time at the family's property, the Château du Bosc, which is close to Albi. Considering that Henri's grandpa, father, and uncle were excellent draughtsmen, it was not surprising that he began creating sketches at the age of 10. His infirmity from an accident in which he broke his left thighbone in 1878 resulted in a rise in his interest in painting. After more than a year, he suffered another incident that fractured his right thighbone. His legs atrophied due to several incidents, which required lengthy rehabilitation times and usually unpleasant treatments, making walking incredibly tough. As a result, Toulouse-Lautrec focused on his art for more and more amounts of time to pass the sometimes lonely hours.
When Toulouse-Lautrec enrolled at the Lycée Fontanes (now Lycée Condorcet), it was his first journey to Paris. He gradually moved on to private tutors, and it wasn't till 1881, when he had completed the baccalaureate studies, that he chose to pursue a path as an artist.
René Princeteau, a friend of the Lautrec family, provided his first liberal arts tutor. Princeteau's fame, such as it was, stemmed from his academic achievement representations of military and equestrian subjects. While Toulouse-Lautrec and Princeteau got along well, by the end of 1882, he moved on to Léon Bonnat's atelier. Toulouse-Lautrec contacted an artist in Bonnat who strongly opposed abandoning academic standards, condemned the Impressionists' rushed technique, and considered Toulouse-drawing Lautrec's "atrocious." His work acquired more favorable reviews when he joined Fernand Cormon's workshop in 1883.
Common went through a brief success in the early 1880s, and his work attracted artists like Vincent van Gogh and the Symbolist painter Émile Bernard. Common granted Toulouse-Lautrec a great deal of flexibility in establishing a particular style. By choosing Toulouse-Lautrec to assist him in highlighting the definitive edition of Victor Hugo's works, Cormon indicated his appreciation of his student's work. Toulouse-designs Lautrec's for this project was eventually rejected.
Toulouse-Lautrec remarked that the ambience in Cormon's workshop was becoming increasingly constrictive despite this permission. On February 18, 1883, he wrote to his uncle Charles remarking, "Cormon's corrections are much nicer than Bonnat's were. He inspects everything you show him and steadily supports one. You might be pleasantly surprised to discover that, genuinely, I wouldn't say I like that. You know, the pounding I suffered from my former master reinvigorated me, and I didn't hold back. The academic copying regimen grew insufferable. One of his buddies subsequently noted that he made "a great effort to imitate the model exactly," he exaggerated some features and sometimes the entire persona without even trying or trying to. The frequency of Toulouse visits Lautrec's studio was soon reduced to a low. Then, he rented his studio in Paris's Montmartre area and primarily focused on painting portraits of his friends.
As a reaction, Toulouse-Lautrec began his lifelong connection with Montmartre's bohemian life in the mid-1880s. His first exposure to people's attention occurred due to his infatuation with the cafés, cabarets, artists, and artists in this part of Paris. Aristide Bruant, Jane Avril, Loie Fuller, May Belfort, May Milton, Valentin le Désossé, Louise Weber (commonly known as La Goulue, or "the Glutton"), and clowns like Cha-U-Kao and Chocolat were some of the well-known entertainers he focused on presenting.
Toulouse-Lautrec visited Bruant, a singer and composer who ran a cabaret by the title of the Mirliton, in 1884. Impressed by his paintings, Bruant offered the Mirliton as a place for Toulouse-Lautrec to exhibit his ideas and asked him to produce drawings for his songs. He gained national attention in Montmartre in this manner, and through reproductions of his drawings in Bruant's magazine Mirliton, that resulted in the start of commissions.
By using unique processes, Toulouse-Lautrec tried to capture the effect of the figure's movement. For illustration, his contemporary Edgar Degas (whose works of Japanese prints were his primary factor) depicted movement by meticulously portraying the anatomical structure of several closely gathered forms, aiming to depict one figure taken at various intervals in time. On the other hand, Toulouse-Lautrec combined freely produced lines and colour that, by themselves, implied movement. Laws of perspective were disregarded to place figures in an active, irregular connection with their surroundings. Lines were no longer bound by what was anatomically accurate; colors were intense and, in their juxtapositions, generated a pulsating rhythm. Toulouse-Lautrec regularly used the structural trick of disguising the legs of his figures. Even though this trait has been regarded as the artist's solution to his atrophied legs, he eliminated specific movement, letting the essence of movement substitute for it. The end product was a vivid, living artwork that, due to its formal abstraction and two general ways, anticipated the turn to the Fauvist and Baroque tendencies in the first decade of the 20th century.
Furthermore, Toulouse-posters Lautrec's showed his originality. Toulouse-Lautrec published his first poster, Moulin Rouge—La Goulue, in 1891, rejecting the idea of fine artwork created in the customary medium of oil on canvas. With the support of this poster, Toulouse-renown Lautrec's soared. The artist claimed, "My poster is pasted today on the walls of Paris." He would create one of more than 30 artworks in the ten years before his demise. Toulouse-Lautrec was no longer confined by the constraints of easel painting, and posters enabled him to impact the general public profoundly. They also contributed to his achievement last year when his paintings were shown at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris and the Exposition des XX (the Twenty), two avant-garde organizations in Brussels.
While he chose to stay put until mid-May, Toulouse-Lautrec was officially committed until March 31, 1899. While there, he produced several pieces with the circus theme, demonstrating his memory and clarity. However, these works lack the intensity and power of his earlier works. He started his excessive drinking in the spring of 1900. He passed away at Château de Malromé less than three months before reaching 37.
Legacy of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec had a massive effect on French art in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the utilization of innovative forms of subjects, his ability to efficiently express the essence of a character, and his stylistic innovations. Toulouse-Lautrec contributed to the rise of avant-garde art long until his shockingly early death at the age of 36, despite his handicap, the repercussions of his alcoholism, and the impacts of mental collapse later in life.
Toulouse-Lautrec wasn't an especially great thinker. When he read, it was generally due to his insomnia, as per Tapié de Céleyran. He was, nevertheless, a maestro of convention and pretend humour. In typical attire, he had name cards with the phrase "Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, flunker of the arts" printed to disguise his initial, unsuccessful endeavor at the baccalaureate. The Sacred Grove, a serious Symbolist artwork by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, was parodied by him as a rowdy scene with raucous associates. It is yet another illustration of his iconoclasm (1884). However, he could push himself into hobbies like swimming and boating, and he attached a rowing machine to his studio at the end of his life. He raced through England with a French cycling squad due to his passion for sports. Toulouse-Lautrec was a "sensitive, profoundly devoted guy, sensitive of his affliction but wearing a mask of joviality and humor," so according to two witnesses.
Toulouse-status Lautrec was debated during his lifetime, despite the fact that today he is considered a prominent figure in late 19th-century art. In reality, the artist's father, who only had shown just little interest in his son after his paralyzing scars, deemed the artist's masterpieces to be nothing more than "rough sketches" and was unwilling to accept the idea that a plutocrat was betraying his class by turning into a "gentleman" artist instead of a professional. Toulouse-Lautrec persevered, although getting hurt by such criticism and alienated due to his deformity, to become a prolific artist whose work was able to take better to impacting art for decades to come.